The Pee Dee History Gallery is the largest gallery space in the facility, comprising 3,300 sq. ft. of exhibit space. This permanent collections gallery occupies the entire second floor, east wing of the building. Artifacts on display are supported by historical images and narrative interpretation, providing a comprehensive introduction to the Pee Dee region from prehistory to the present.

Highlights in this gallery include: Cretaceous period reptile material, an 18 ft. tall Ancient Bald Cypress trunk sub-fossil, Native American and Colonial period artifacts, Civil War artifacts from the Florence Stockade prison camp and Confederate Naval Yard at Mars Bluff, artifacts related to life and career of former FBI agent and Florence County native, Melvin Purvis and fragments of the MK-6 atomic bomb which was accidentally dropped on the Mars Bluff community in 1958.